Kenali Biaya Biaya Asuransi

Asuransi… Perlu sih perlu. Tapi berapa milyar uang orang dirugikan karena agen yang tidak jujur. Saya pernah dirugikan, orang tua pernah dirugikan, dan mungkin anda juga… Tapi anda tidak sadar 🙂

Demi menulis artikel ini, saya mendedikasikan 3 bulan terakhir saya mempelajari asuransi dengan cara:

  1. Meminta penawaran dari berbagai perusahaan asuransi
  2. Membongkar polis keluarga saya dan membacanya satu satu
  3. Berdiskusi intensif dengan berbagai agen dan meladeni setiap telepon mereka dengan sabar

Anda tidak perlu mengikuti jejak saya, cukup baca tulisan ini untuk menjadi pisau kritis yang bisa menyilet tajam setiap polis asuransi.

Biaya yang saya bahas disini umumnya hanya terdapat dalam asuransi berjenis unit link yang memang mendominasi market asuransi dalam 5 tahun terakhir. Unit link adalah asuransi yang memiliki komponen investasi didalamnya.

Asuransi tradisional tidak memiliki ‘biaya’ karena anda hanya terus menerus membayar premi, dan didalam premi tersebut sudah terdapat seluruh biaya yang bisa menghidupkan penyedia asuransi anda. Sedangkan dalam unit link, penyedia asuransi perlu membebankan berbagai biaya yang dipotong dari investasi anda supaya mereka bisa bertahan hidup.

Harap dicatat bahwa penyedia asuransi banyak yang memiliki istilah alternatif bikinan mereka sendiri untuk memusingkan nasabah. Yang saya sebutkan disini adalah istilah yang paling umum digunakan, dan bila anda memahami tulisan ini, anda akan bisa mencocokkan sendiri sinonim/kesamaan dari istilah yang mereka gunakan.

Jenis Biaya Biaya Asuransi

Biaya administrasi: Sama seperti bank yang mengenakan biaya administrasi setiap bulannya, asuransi pun membebankan biaya administrasi. Nilainya biasa hanya puluhan ribu rupiah setiap bulan dan cenderung tidak naik sering sering.

Biaya akuisisi: Jenis biaya paling rese yang dikenakan setiap asuransi. Biaya akuisisi tidak jelas larinya kemana, pokoknya harus ada. Kalau tidak ada perusahaannya akan bangkrut dan gabisa bayar agennya. Asuransi dengan persentase biaya akuisisi yang besar akan membuat investasi anda tergerus dan uang anda akan habis sia sia di awal tahun. Misalnya akuisisi di tahun pertama adalah sebesar 70%, bila premi anda 10 juta rupiah maka di tahun pertama investasi anda yang terbentuk paling hanya sekitar 3 juta.

Biaya alokasi premi : Biaya yang membuat investasi di asuransi pasti kalah untung dibandingkan di reksadana secara langsung. Baca penjelasan biaya bid-offer dibawah karena sama saja penjelasannya.

Biaya asuransi: Bilamana dalam asuransi tradisional anda membayar premi secara terus terusan atau dalam kurun waktu tertentu, maka dalam asuransi unit link, penyedia asuransi akan mengambil uang anda tersebut dalam wujud biaya asuransi. Biaya asuransi ini jumlahnya tergantung dari uang pertanggungan anda, umur, status kesehatan, dll – faktor – faktor yang persis digunakan asuransi tradisional untuk menghitung premi anda. Biaya asuransi pasti akan naik setiap tahunnya, jadi angka yang tertulis di proposal anda tidak selamanya berlaku.

Biaya asuransi tambahan: Apabila polis anda memiliki asuransi tambahan atau umumnya disebut rider, maka biaya ini pasti ada. Namun tidak usah dipusingkan, karena sebenarnya sama saja dengan biaya asuransi yang disebutkan diatas. Logikanya, bila anda menambah manfaat, tentu akan ada biaya tambahan juga.

Biaya bid-offer: Sama saja dengan biaya alokasi premi, hanya beda istilah saja. Jangan percaya bila ada yang bilang bahwa perhitungan iniberbeda dengan alokasi premi. Kedua duanya memotong nominal tertentu dari premi anda (biasanya 5 persen). Jadi bila anda bayar premi 10 juta, yang masuk ke investasi hanya 9.5 juta. Biaya beatover dan alokasi premi biasanya ‘disembunyikan’ melalui istilah dua jenis harga dalam sebuah unit link yaitu ‘harga bid/beli’ dan ‘harga offer/jual’. Tidak usah memusingkan istilah tersebut. Pokoknya uang anda dipotong!

Biaya pembatalan polis: Istilahnya biasanya ‘free look’, ‘cooling off’ dan lain lain. Biaya yang dikenakan apabila anda mengajukan pembatalan polis dalam kurun waktu tertentu. Besarnya ratusan ribu rupiah, dan bila anda dikenakan biaya ini, berarti premi yang sudah anda bayarkan akan dikembalikan seluruhnya. Anggap saja ini biaya pembatalan yang dikenakan karena anda telah merepotkan agen anda namun tidak jadi berkomitmen mengambil asuransinya.

Biaya pemeliharaan: Jarang ada biaya jenis ini, biasanya dikenakan hanya pada asuransi yang tidak memiliki biaya akuisisi (jenis dwiguna dan premi tunggal). Biaya ini nominalnya cenderung kecil dan hanya dikenakan di beberapa tahun pertama. Biaya pemeliharaan menurut saya adalah biaya akuisisi yang berkedok baik. Bilamana biaya akuisisi dibebankan dimuka secara besar-besaran, biaya pemeliharaan dikenakan sedikit sedikit agar tidak kelihatan jahat. Contoh biaya pemeliharaan adalah 0.5% per tahun dari nilai polis yang terbentuk.

Biaya penarikan unit: Biaya yang dikenakan apabila anda mengambil nilai investasi unit link anda. Persentasenya akan sangat besar di beberapa tahun pertama dan menurun seiring berjalannya waktu. Biaya ini ada supaya anda tidak seenak jidat mengambil uang premi anda setelah menyetorkannya kepada penyedia asuransi (hal ini akan membuat mereka bangkrut dong). Misalnya biaya penarikan unit adalah sebesar 30%, maka bila anda hendak mengambil 10 juta, yang anda terima hanya 7 juta rupiah.

Biaya pengalihan aset: Sebenarnya sama saja dengan switching. Kalau ada agen yang bilang bahwa keduanya berbeda, suruh dia balik training ke leadernya, karena jelas ga lulus pelatihandasar. Baca penjelasan biaya switching dibawah.

Biaya pengelolaan aset: Sama dengan biaya pengelolaan aset di reksadana. Biaya ini tidak kelihatan karena diperhitungkan langsung dalam valuasi kenaikan harga unit (NAV) jadi untuk biaya ini jangan terlalu dipikirkan karena tidak akan merugikan kita secara nasabah.

Biaya redemption/surrender: Biaya super besar yang dikenakan bila anda mau membatalkan polis. Semakin awal anda membatalkan atau menutup polis anda, semakin besar biaya yang dikenakan.

Biaya rider: sama seperti biaya asuransi tambahan yang telah dijelaskan diatas

Biaya spread: sama saja dengan bid-offer yang sudah dibahas diatas

Biaya switching: Karena unit link pada dasarnya adalah reksadana, maka wajar saja asuransi mengenakan biaya switching alias pengalihan dana bila anda mau mengganti pilihan investasi anda. Biasa nilainya 0.5% dari dana yang dialihkan, namun sekarang asuransi memberikan kuota switching gratis beberapa kali dalam setahun.

Penutup

Biaya dalam asuransi unit link memang banyak macamnya, dan penting bagi calon nasabah untuk memahami secara detail biaya apa saja yang akan dikenakan dalam polis mereka agar mereka bisa merencanakan keuangan mereka dengan akurat (karena unit link itu kan investasi yang harus direncanakan!)

Sayangnya banyak agen yang tidak mengedukasi nasabahnya dengan baik sehingga mengakibatkan polis lapse akibat nilai investasi yang tergerus oleh berbagai macam biaya. Semoga melalui tulisan ini semakin banyak masyarakat yang melek investasi dan bisa memilih produk investasi terbaik yang cocok untuk kebutuhan mereka masing-masing.

Ada yang saya lewatkan? Ada yang ingin ditanyakan? Butuh rekomendasi produk asuransi? Silakan tinggalkan komentar dibawah.

Adrian Siaril
Adrian Siaril

The boss

Articles: 588

186 Comments

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    • Hahaha saya ga masukkan karena kalau orang seperti saya cepat pak menghadapi orang asuransi. Apapun yang mereka mau katakan saya sudah tahu jurusnya, jadi saya ceramahin duluan sebelom mereka ceramahin saya. Sekarang asuransi sudah banyak yang bisa online juga sih, tapi saya belom sempet tinjau.

        • Investasi yang sifatnya proteksi pak. Investasi itu luas dan banyak macamnya, bahkan beli rumah pun sebenarnya investasi. ada yang jangka pendek, jangka panjang, dan proteksi. Nah Menurut saya asuransi masuk kategori proteksi. Perlu diingat juga asuransi ada dua macam, tradisional tanpa komponen investasi sama sekali, dan unit link yang mengandung unsur investasi.

          • Kalau menurut saya setiap manusia harus berasuransi ya pak. Tujuannya agar bila terjadi hal2 yang tidak diinginkan, maka kondisi finansial kita tetap baik dan bahkan malah bisa jadi berkah buat ahli warisnya. Namun asuransi yang dimikili harus sesuai kebutuhan setiap orang

          • Gitu ya pak. Tapi Kalo liat ulasan anda diatas kok jadi ngeri ya pak. Sepertinya asuransi kok jahat sekali ya.

          • Sebenarnya maksud tulisan saya bukan bilang asuransi itu jahat sih, tapi menegaskan kalau asuransi itu tidak sebagus ucapan para agen agen penjualnya. Harus diteliti baik baik dulu biayanya apa saja supaya tidak malah merugikan diri sendiri. Karena kalau tidak paham bukannya untung malah buntung

          • Berarti yg jahat agennya ya pak. Klo perusahaannya okay ya.
            Terus bapak sendiri punya asuransi Kah?

          • Tidak semua agen jahat, tidak semua perusahaan baik juga pak. Buktinya jiwasraya itu bumn tapi bobrok. Kresna life baru masuk berita ada kasus gagal bayar juga. Perlu cari agen asuransi yang bapak percaya dan track recordnya bagus, dan pastikan agen nya bekerja untuk perusahaan asuransi yang bagus jg. Untuk Saya sendiri asuransi tentu punya

  1. pak mau tanya asuransi yg bapak punya itu berarti yg traditional atau unitlink?
    ada rekomendasi perusahaan asuransi yg bagus tidak pak?
    mungkin bisa disebutkan dari inisial atau lambang dan warna

    • Saya punya banyak asuransi kak, ada tradisional maupun unit link. Sebenarnya untuk rekomendasi, kita bukan pilih perusahaan melainkan pilih produk. Nah saya perlu tahu dulu nih kebutuhan kak Carissa cari asuransi apa? Misalnya untuk asuransi jiwa seumur hidup saya rekomendasi si ijo, kalau untuk kesehatan saya rekomendasi si biru, kalau untuk penyakit kritis saya rekomendasi si merah, kalau untuk investasi saya rekomendasi si kuning. Monggo email saya aja ke asiaril@ymail.com kalau mau diskusi spesifik

  2. asuransi penyakit kritis yang paling recommend apa pak? bukan yang rider? any comment untuk asuransi penyakit kritis astra life? terimakasih sebelumnya

    • Halo mbak Tika. Untuk asuransi penyakit kritis non rider sih saya sukanya PRIMA AIA ya, karena sistem bayarnya mirip whole life dan cakupan penyakitnya cukup luas (meskipun bukan yang terbaik). Untuk astra life bisa informasikan nama produknya dulu?

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